# Cumulated time series from returns

`fin-cumulated.Rd`

Computes a cumulated financial `"timeSeries"`

, e.g. prices or
indexes, from financial returns.

## Usage

```
cumulated(x, ...)
# S3 method for default
cumulated(x, method = c("continuous", "discrete",
"compound", "simple"), percentage = FALSE, ...)
```

## Arguments

- x
an object of class

`timeSeries`

.- method
a character string, the method for computation of returns.

- percentage
a logical value. By default

`FALSE`

, if`TRUE`

the series will be expressed in percentage changes.- ...
ignored by the default method.

## Details

Note, the function `cumulated`

assumes as input discrete returns
from a price or index series. Only then the cumulated series agrees
with the original price or index series. The first values of the
cumulated series cannot be computed, it is assumed that the series is
indexed to 1.

## Examples

```
## Use the Microsofts' Close Prices Indexed to 1 -
MSFT.CL <- MSFT[, "Close"]
MSFT.CL <- MSFT.CL/MSFT[[1, "Close"]]
head(MSFT.CL)
#> GMT
#> Close
#> 2000-09-27 1.0000000
#> 2000-09-28 1.0113402
#> 2000-09-29 0.9948454
#> 2000-10-02 0.9752577
#> 2000-10-03 0.9329897
#> 2000-10-04 0.9144330
## Compute Discrete Return -
MSFT.RET <- returns(MSFT.CL, method = "discrete")
## Cumulated Series and Compare -
MSFT.CUM <- cumulated(MSFT.RET, method = "discrete")
head(cbind(MSFT.CL, MSFT.CUM))
#> GMT
#> Close.1 Close.2
#> 2000-09-27 1.0000000 NA
#> 2000-09-28 1.0113402 1.0113402
#> 2000-09-29 0.9948454 0.9948454
#> 2000-10-02 0.9752577 0.9752577
#> 2000-10-03 0.9329897 0.9329897
#> 2000-10-04 0.9144330 0.9144330
```